History of Anti-Hindi Imposition Agitations in Tamil Nadu

(A Chronology of Anti-Hindi Agitations)

Thanjai Nalankilli

This article was originally published in Tamil Tribune, it contains the overall chronological events about Anti-Hindi Imposition agitations happened in Tamil Nadu. The multitudes of people who were assaulted and massacred  during agitations were still unknown, our forefathers & political leaders (Dravidian Movements) courageously opposed the forceful Hindi Imposition & protected our language “Tamil” and safeguarded its glorious culture. Re-posting here,

TAMIL TRIBUNE, January 2003 (ID. 2003-01-01); Updated: 2017-02-01

[Summary: History of Anti-Hindi Agitations in Tamil Nadu – A Chronology: Over 50 events from 1938 to 1968 including the violent days of 1965 discussed.]

OUTLINE

ABBREVIATIONS

PREFACE

1. Anti-Hindi Agitation: 1938-1964

1938: January 3
1938: February 27
1938: April 21
1938: May 28
1938: June 3
1938: August 1
1938: September 10
1938 – 1939
1939: January
1940: February 21
1942:
1946:
1947:
1948:
1948-1949
1950: January 26
1950: May 2
1950: July 18
1952:
1959:
1960:
1963: August 25
1963: October 6
1963: October 13

2. 1965: The Volcano Erupts

2.1 Black Flags over Tamil Nadu
2.2 Self Immolation
2.3 Student Protests: January 25
2.4 Student Protests: January 27
2.5 Killing Fields of Tamil Nadu: January 27 to February 13
2.6 Death Count

3. 1967: Year of the Election

4. 1968: Call for Independence

5. After 1965: Smoldering Years of Resentment

6. What the Future Holds

ABBREVIATIONS

AIADMK – All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

DK – Dravidar Kazhagam

DMK – Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

TNLA – Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (Thamizh Nadu Viduthalai Padai)

TNRT – Tamil Nadu Retrieval Troops (Thamizh Nadu Meetchi Padai) or Tamil National Retrieval Troops (Thamiz Thesiya Meetchi Padai)

PREFACE

The term “Anti-Hindi Agitation” is a short form for “Anti-Hindi Imposition Agitation”. TamilNadu (South India) has nothing against the Hindi language. Let that language live and flourish where it belongs; in Hindi lands and wherever else people want it as official language or link language or national language or lingua franca. People of TamilNadu do not want it that way and are opposed to its imposition on them. Forcing Indian Government employees from TamilNad to learn and work in Hindi (in non-Hindi areas) is Hindi imposition. Showing Hindi programmes all day in TamilNadu on Indian Government controlled television in spite of the expressed wishes of the people for more Tamil programmes is another example of Hindi imposition. These and many other forms of Hindi imposition are not acceptable to Tamil Nadu. As Pattom Thanu Pillai, former Chief Minister of Kerala, said, “Hindi is as much alien to South Indians as English is to Indians“.

We are not listing here every anti-Hindi demonstration that took place in Tamil Nadu. That would run into several hundred events. We list here only some key events.

1. Anti-Hindi Agitation: 1938-1964

Hindi imposition over Tamil Nadu started even before the British rule ended. During the last decades of British rule over the Indian Subcontinent, the British rulers allowed elected local provincial government under the British Government of India. In 1937, Congress Party formed the Government of Madras Presidency (Province), consisting of most of today’s Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. This Congress Government under C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) was the first to impose Hindi on Tamil people. This immediately started protests in Tamil Nadu.

1938: January 3

Anti-Hindi demonstrations before Rajaji’s house and as it became evident that the government plans to make Hindi a compulsory subject in schools. 1271 people, including 73 women, were arrested.

1938: February 27

The first Anti-Hindi Imposition Conference was held in Kancheepuram (Kanchi, Kanchipuram). Somasundara Bharathiyar, Paventhar Bharathi Dasan and C. N. Annadurai (Arinjar Anna) were among those who addressed the conference.

1938: April 21

Government of Madras Presidency made Hindi a compulsory subject in schools.

1938: May 28

Tamil patriots from all over the Madras Presidency formed the Anti-Hindi Command. Somasundara Bharathiyar was elected President and K.A.P. Viswanatham was elected Secretary.

1938: June 3

The great Saivaite scholar Maraimalai Adikalar (Marai Malai Adigalar) chaired the Anti-Hindi Conference at Kodampakkam, Chennai (Madras).

1938: August 1

Anti-Hindi March from Thiruchirapalli (Tiruchi, Trichi) to Chennai (Madras).

1938: September 10

At the Anti-Hindi Meeting held at Thiruvallikeni Beach in Chennai (Madras), Periyar E. V. Ramaswami Naicker (EVR) declared that Tamil Nadu should be an independent country. “Tamil Nadu for Tamils“, he said, amongst thunderous applause from the huge crowd.

1938 – 1939

A number of Anti-Hindi Meetings and demonstrations were held throughout Tamil Nadu. A 1939 Women’s Anti-Hindi Conference was chaired by Tharumambal. Women have participated in almost all anti-Hindi protests. We make a special mention of this because it was an exclusively Women’s Conference against Hindi imposition.

1939: January

Natarajan and Thalamuthu who were arrested for demonstrating against Hindi imposition died during imprisonment. Both fell ill in prison, were admitted to hospital and died there. Natarajan, arrested in December 1938, died next January. Thalamuthu, arrested in February 1939, died in March.

1940: February 21

Under so much opposition against Hindi, Government of Madras Presidency withdrew its order making Hindi a compulsory subject in schools. Anti-Hindi agitations abated.

1942:

Now that anti-Hindi protests had abated for two years, Government of Madras Presidency made Hindi compulsory in schools again. Anti-Hindi agitations resumed. Government backed down and again withdrew its order.

1946:

A new Congress Government was formed in Madras Presidency under T. Prakasam. Hindi was again made compulsory in schools. Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker appointed his top lieutenant C. N. Annadurai in charge of organizing demonstrations against it. Government backed down again and removed Hindi as a compulsory subject.

1947:

Once the British rule ended on August 15, 1947, Congress Party took full control of India both at the central government and at the state government levels. The Indian (central) government was hell bent on imposing Hindi on the non-Hindi peoples.

1948:

Hindi was again made a compulsory subject in schools. Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naickar convened an anti-Hindi Conference in Chennai (Madras) on July 17, 1948. Maraimalai Adigalar presided over the Conference. Thiru Vi Ka opened the conference. C. N. Annadurai and M. P. Sivaganam were among the speakers. Professor Ilakkuvanar presided over another Anti-Hindi Conference on August 1, 1948.

1948 – 1949:

Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) organized many anti-Hindi demonstrations in front of schools. Several thousand demonstrators were arrested and jailed. But Hindi continued to be a compulsory subject in schools.

1950: January 26

The new Indian Constitution went into effect on January 26, 1950. In spite of intense opposition from many non-Hindi leaders, especially from many Tamil leaders, Hindi was made the official language of India, relegating the other languages to a secondary status. Several years later, in 1963 Annadurai would say, “Making a language (Hindi) that is the mother tongue of a region of India the official language for all the people of India is tyranny. We believe that it will give benefits and superiority to one region (the Hindi-speaking region)… If Hindi were to become the official language of India, Hindi-speaking people will govern us. We will be treated like third rate citizens“.  Hindi would become the sole official language on January 26, 1965. English would also be used as an official language during the interim 15 year period.

1950: May 2

Madras State government issued an order making Hindi a compulsory subject in both middle and high schools (grades 6 to 11). Again there were massive protests. Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) and the newly formed Dravida Munnetra Kazahagam (DMK), which split from DK in 1949, spearheaded the protests.

1950: July 18

Under intense opposition from Tamil people, government again removed Hindi as compulsory subject.

1952:

Indian Government put Hindi signs in all Indian (Central) Government offices in Madras State (Tamil Nadu). Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) under Periyar EVR and its offshoot Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) under C. N. Annadurai (Arinjar Anna) orgaized anti-Hindi demonstrations. Periyar painted tar over Hindi signs in Thiruchi. Annadurai did so in Coimbatore. Thousands of others did so around the state.

1959:

President of India issued an order that all efforts to make Hindi the sole official language of India by January 26, 1965 be strengthened and hastened. (According to the Indian Constitution, English would be used as a co-official language between January 26, 1950 and January 26, 1965. Then English would be removed and Hindi would become the sole official language of India.)

Indian Government controlled All India Radio (AIR) started using the Hindi word Akashwani on the air. Tamil people demonstrated against this. Tamil writers and performers refused to participate in radio programs. Indian Government decided to use the old name “All India Radio” in Tamil Nadu (Maras State) while Akashwani was used in other states. (NOTE: Indian Government started using Akashwani in Tamil Nadu again in 1982. Tamil people demonstrated and government went back to All India Radio again.)

1960:

DMK formed an Anti-Hindi Agitation Committee under E.V.K. Sampath. The Anti-Hindi Imposition Meeting held under DMK sponsorship on August 1, 1960 was a huge success; more than 1 lakh people attended (1 lakh = 100,000). Immediately Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru sent a letter to E.V.K. Sampath assuring that Hindi would not be imposed on TamilNad. But Hindi imposition continued and still continues. He also assured that English would continue as an official language of India as long as non-Hindi peoples want it.

1963: August 25

At the Thanjavoor Anti-Hindi Conference, C.N. Annadurai said, “It is the duty of the Tamil people to wage war on those who impose Hindi.”

1963: October 6

Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Conference was held in Thiruchirapalli (Thiruchi or Trichi). This was the first major anti-Hindi conference by students. Students would play a major role in just less than 16 months.

1963: October 13

DMK’s Anti-Hindi Protest Conference was held in Chennai (Madras). Party General-Secretary C.N. Annadurai asked volunteers to burn 17-th Part of the Indian Constitution. This is the part that makes Hindi the official language of India. In the subsequent months DMK leaders and cadres burnt the constitution all over TamilNadu. They were arrested and jailed.

2. 1965: The Volcano Erupts

2.1 Black Flags over Tamil Nadu

Hindi was to become the sole official language of India on January 26, 1965. January 26 is the Republic Day of India, the day on which the Indian Constitution went into force (in 1950). DMK announced January 26 as a Day of Mourning and asked volunteers to raise black flags all over Tamil Nadu. Police took many DMK leaders into preventive custody the previous night. It would have been big news but for the Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Imposition Agitation on January 25 and January 26, 1965. We provide a brief discussion of the Students Agitation in Sections 2.3 to 2.5.

2.2 Self Immolation

Before we go into the Students’ Agitation, we wish to discuss the ultimate sacrifice of some Tamil patriots who poured petrol (gasoline) over their bodies, lit there bodies with fire, and offered their lives and bodies to Tamil in protest against Hindi imposition (self immolation).

These were the first instances of self-immolation in Tamil Nadu. In fact, these were the first instances of self-immolation anywhere in the world except for Vietnam where, a few years before, some Buddhist monks did the same to protest the dictatorial rule there. These are the names of the brave Tamil patriots who offered themselves as burnt sacrifices (If I left out someone please write to TAMIL TRIBUNE so their names could be added to this Honour Role of Tamil Patriots.):

Ayyampalayam Veerappan
Kellapaluvur Chinnasamy
Keranoor Muthu
Kodambakkam Sivalingam
Mayavaram Sarangapani
Satyamangalam Muthu
Veerukkambakkam Aranganathan

More details about these martyrs may be found in Reference 1. Tamil Nationalist Poet Perunchiththiranar sang of them thus: “Have you anointed yourself with black oil (petrol) and showered in fire?” (kan-nei muzuki kanal kuliththanaiyo?).

2.3 Student Protests: January 25

Since January 26 was a holiday, University of Madras students went on a one-day strike on January 25. (University of Madras has now been split into a number of universities to reflect the growth in colleges and student population. In 1965 there were only two universities in Tamil Nadu, namely, University of Madras and Annamalai University.)

Both university and school students mobilized in protest against Hindi imposition all over Tamil Nadu. Virtually all stores closed in support. This was the largest mass protest ever in the history of Tamil Nadu (with the possible exception of the protests held two days later on January 27). There was nothing like that before and there has been nothing like that since then with the possible exception of January 27.

There were protest marches in most towns and cities in Tamil Nadu. Over 50,000 people marched in Madras City (Chennai); this includes students as well as some general public who joined the march. The marches were peaceful. There were colorful placards and banners against Hindi imposition. There were slogans against Hindi imposition. In some cities students beat drums and blew bugles as they marched through the main streets. At least in one city (Coimbatore) “pall bearers” carried the “dead body” of Hindi demon, accompanied by “wailing” students, to signify the “death” of Hindi imposition in Tamil Nadu. The marches were colorful. The marches were noisy. The marches were huge. It was all peaceful. The students wanted it that way. The students did it that way.

The peaceful demonstrations turned bloody at the end in Madurai. Some members of a ruling party affiliated trade union attacked the students with small swords (arival). Tamil blood was spilled again in the protest against Hindi imposition. Many towns and cities in Tamil Nadu would be painted red with the blood of Tamil martyrs in the next two weeks.

2.4 Student Protests and first police shooting death

Annamalai University is located in Chidamparam (Chidhambaram or Chithamparam). Annamalai University students also demonstrated against Hindi imposition. There were banners, placards, slogan shouting, drums and bugles. Students marched towards the center of Chidhamparam. All was peaceful. Police asked the students to stop the march. Students refused. Police opened fire on the unarmed students. All that the students wanted was to show the world their opposition to Hindi imposition. But police fired on them. One student died (Rajendran) and another was wounded seriously (Nedumaran).

There were other student processions and demonstrations all over Tamil Nadu too. These are described in Section 2.5.

2.5 Killing Fields of Tamil Nadu: January 27 to February 13

Violence against students by pro-Government trade union members in Madurai and arrests of anti-Hindi imposition demonstrators angered the students all over Tamil Nadu. Massive protest rallies were held on January 27 all over TamilNadu. These rallies rivaled those of January 25. The public was with the students. Many stores closed in sympathy. People observed in silence as students marched through the streets. Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Agitation Committee announced an indefinite strike. There was public support for the strike. A rebellion was brewing in Tamil Nadu.

The mass participation in the Anti-Hindi Imposition Protests and the extent of public support to the students sent chills through the veins of Hindi politicians who dominated the Indian Parliament and thus the Indian Government. Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, Home Minister Gulzarilal Nanda and the subservient Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Bhaktavatsalam (who also belonged to the same Congress Party) decided to put down the anti-Hindi protests with brute force. Indian Army soldiers, Central Reserve Police and out-of-state police were rushed into Tamil Nadu. Soldiers and police shot indiscriminately into crowds of unarmed demonstrators killing “uncounted number” of protesters, maiming many and otherwise wounding many more. Many towns and cities had the blood of Tamil martyrs spilled on their streets. This went on until February 13. Unable to stop the demonstrations, even with such brute force, Chief Minister Bhaktavatsalam and Indian Government Minister Subramaniam (from Tamilnadu) promised that they would work for the enactment of laws to prevent Hindi imposition. Students called off the strike. Student leaders announced the end of the agitation in the late hours of February 12 but there were demonstrations in a few places on February 13 because word did not reach those students. Indian Parliament passed a lukewarm Language Act on August 1, 1968. It did not meet the expectations of the Tamil people. Hindi imposition continued and continues  [Reference 2].

2.6 Death Count

The exact number of people killed, maimed and wounded is not available. That is why we used the phrase “uncounted number” in the second paragraph of Section 2.5. Professor Alfred Stepan of Columbia University (USA) writes, “Police and army troops opened fire in twenty-one towns in the state, arrested over 10,000 people, and probably killed over 100 people”. Thinathanthi (daily newspapers) added up the death counts published in that paper to 63. However, reading Thinathanthi, it is clear that these 63 were the ones who died at the shooting or in the hospital or on the way to hospital that day. It does not seem to include anyone who died in hospital after a day or more from the shooting. Because of the fast moving events and so many deaths occurring, newspapers did not seem to follow up the fate of the injured. Remember, over 55 of the 63 deaths were in just 5 days between February 8 and 12, 1965; thirty one deaths were reported on February 12 alone. Ages of those killed range from 13 to 50.

Usually newspapers publish the names and brief bio-information of the dead and injured when someone is killed or injured in police shooting. For example, when Rajendran was killed and Nedumaran was injured in Annamalai University (first shooting death and injury), newspapers published their names and brief bio-information. Because so many deaths were happening, not even the names of the dead were published in many instances between February 8 and 13; they just became a number; reports were like “ten people were killed in Kumarapalayam” (no names of the prople killed). So many were injured that newspapers did not publish the number of injured in many shootings but just said, “many were injured”.

3. 1967: Year of the Election

In the 1967 general election, Tamil voters expressed their opposition to Hindi imposition with their votes. The Congress Party, which people associated with Hindi imposition, was defeated thoroughly; the Chief Minister, every cabinet minister and the party president all lost the election. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), which people associated with opposition to Hindi imposition, won a landslide victory and formed the state government. But the state government could do little to stop Hindi imposition. That power rested with the Indian Government.

4. 1967-1968: Call for Independence

In spite of the massive 1965 demonstrations and the telling vote against Hindi in the 1967 general election, Hindi imposition continued. So Tamil Nadu Students demonstrated against continued Hindi imposition in late 1967 and early 1968. It was nothing of the size of the 1965 agitation. (People have learned that these protests fall into deaf years of the Indian Government). One event during this protest was worth noting. The protest march in Coimbatore City culminated at the V. O. C. Park in the centre of the city. Addressing the students, chairman of the Coimbatore Students Anti-Hindi Agitation Committee said that the only way to get rid of Hindi is for Tamil Nadu to become an independent country. He then hoisted the “Independent Tamil Nadu National Flag” and saluted it. Students stood in attention. Then the students disbursed. The flag fluttered in the gentle breeze of Coimbatore City. Police came and took down the flag.

5. After 1965: Smoldering Years of Resentment

The 1965 Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Agitation was a landmark in Tamil people’s opposition to Hindi imposition. Until 1965, Tamil people had hope that peaceful protests would stop Hindi imposition. A peaceful people could do no more than what they did in 1965–a mass protest rivaling anything ever seen not only in Tamil Nadu but in the Indian subcontinent as a whole. Result was “uncounted number” of peaceful protesters killed, maimed and wounded, and a watered-down Language Act of 1968; an Act that means nothing much in view of the continuing Hindi imposition to this day. (The exact number of people killed, maimed and wounded is not available. That is why we used the phrase “uncounted number” here. More discussion of the number of people killed is in section 2.6.) Tamil people are no fools to hit their heads against a brick wall again and again hoping that it would give way. Neither are they fools to organize mass rallies again and again against Hindi imposition hoping that it would stop. Unlike before and during 1965, neither the general public nor the students participated in the rather small anti-Hindi demonstrations organized by political parties and Tamil organizations after 1965. (The 1968 one-day students strike was an exception. See Section 4.) Those who organized these demonstrations include the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), the Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) and Thalai Nagar Tamizh Sangam (Capital City Tamil Association). There were a few dozen such demonstrations during these years. We will not list them here. In addition to these demonstrations, DMK and AIADMK also hold meetings throughout Tamil Nadu every year on January 25 in remembrance of those who were killed by Indian security forces during the 1965 Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Agitation. Initially, in the 1960s, it was the students who held these meetings on January 25 but later DMK and AIADMK started holding their own meetings. January 25 is called “Neeththaar Ninaivu Naal” (day of remembering those who died).

The absence of much public enthusiasm for anti-Hindi demonstrations should in no way be construed as Tamil people have accepted Hindi. Absolutely not. You cage a lion, beat it and starve it until it does its circus tricks. That does not mean it accepted it. One day it may strike its trainer and kill him/her. May be, may be not. No one knows. Talk to the Tamil people. You will learn their resentment against Hindi broadcasts on Indian Government run television. Talk in private to Tamil employees working for the Indian Government and its undertakings. You will learn their resentment on being forced to learn Hindi. (All non-Hindi employees of Indian Government and its undertakings must attend Hindi classes and pass Hindi examinations). If the Indian Government is to question my statement, I challenge it to conduct a poll during the next general election whether Tamil people want Hindi as the official language of India. If they vote for Hindi, I swear that I would spend the rest of my life chanting the praise of Hindi in Hindi in the streets of Tamil Nadu.

One day the pent up anger of the Tamil people would burst in some form or other. Will the circus lion tear apart its cruel trainer?

6. What the Future Holds

The simmering grudge and resentment against Hindi imposition in the hearts and minds of the Tamil people will one day burst like a volcano. In what form will it materialize? There is already some indication.

In 1968, representatives of Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Agitation Committee met Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at the Chennai Airport (Madras Airport) and handed her a letter. It said that if Hindi imposition continued, they would have to fight for independence (freedom) for Tamil Nadu. The same year, at the end of an Anti-Hindi Imposition Rally, Coimbatore students hoisted the “Independent Tamil Nadu National Flag” saying that independence for Tamil Nadu is the only way to end Hindi imposition (see Section 4). Several years later, in in the mid-1980s, a former Coimbatore student (Thamizharasan) co-founded the Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (TNLA) (Thamizh Nadu Viduthalai Padai) to wage armed struggle for the liberation (freedom) of Tamil Nadu from Indian rule. Hindi imposition and economic discrimination are two of the reason he cited for launching the Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (TNLA).

There is a good possibility that the simmering resentment of Hindi imposition could result in wider support for Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (TNLA) (Thamizh Nadu Viduthalai Padai), Tamil Nadu Retrieval Troops (TNRT) (Thamizh Nadu Meetchi Padai) and other emerging groups like “Thamizhaka Makkal Viduthalai Padai” that are fighting for the liberation of TamilNadu from Indian rule. Even if a small percentage of those who resent Hindi-imposition were to actively support organizations that fight for Tamil Nadu independence, such organizations would become a formidable force for the Indian Government to reckon with. This is our opinion; it may or may not happen. Time will tell.

REFERENCES

1. Burnt Offerings Against Hindi Imposition: Self Immolation of Tamil Martyrs in Tamil Nadu, 1965 (by Thanjai Nalankilli), TAMIL TRIBUNE, January 2004 (20 KB)

2. Direct Hindi Imposition: Hindi Imposition through Indian Government Jobs

Courtesy :  Thanjai Nalankilli , http://www.tamiltribune.com

 

 

Today’s Word : syzygy

Word : syzygy

PRONUNCIATION:
(SIZ-uh-jee)

 

MEANING:

noun:
1. An alignment of three objects, for example, sun, moon, and earth during an eclipse.
2. A pair of related things.

 

ETYMOLOGY:
From Latin syzygia, from Greek syzygia (union, pair). Ultimately from the Indo-European root yeug- (to join), which is also the ancestor of junction, yoke, yoga, adjust, juxtapose, rejoinder, jugular, and junta. Earliest documented use: 1656.

 

NOTES:
One could hyperpolysyllabically contrive a longer word having four Ys, but syzygy nicely lines up three of them organically in just six letters.

 

USAGE:
“‘To me it’s two dots that connect,’ Douglas Coupland says, ‘I don’t know if there’s going to be a third one so it makes a syzygy.'”
John Barber; Douglas Coupland; The Globe and Mail (Toronto, Canada); Oct 2, 2009.

Explore “syzygy” in the Visual Thesaurus.

courtesy: wordsmith

Puzzle : A Strange Liar

Ravi is a strange liar. He lies on six days of the week, but on the seventh day he always tells the truth. He made the following statements on three successive days:

Day 1: “I lie on Monday and Tuesday.”
Day 2: “Today, it’s Thursday, Saturday, or Sunday.”
Day 3: “I lie on Wednesday and Friday.”

On which day does Ravi tell the truth?

Solution

We know that Ravi tells the truth on only a single day of the week. If the statement on day 1 is untrue, this means that he tells the truth on Monday or Tuesday. If the statement on day 3 is untrue, this means that he tells the truth on Wednesday or Friday. Since Ravi tells the truth on only one day, these statements cannot both be untrue. So, exactly one of these statements must be true, and the statement on day 2 must be untrue.

Assume that the statement on day 1 is true. Then the statement on day 3 must be untrue, from which follows that Ravi tells the truth on Wednesday or Friday. So, day 1 is a Wednesday or a Friday. Therefore, day 2 is a Thursday or a Saturday. However, this would imply that the statement on day 2 is true, which is impossible. From this we can conclude that the statement on day 1 must be untrue.

This means that Ravi told the truth on day 3 and that this day is a Monday or a Tuesday. So day 2 is a Sunday or a Monday. Because the statement on day 2 must be untrue, we can conclude that day 2 is a Monday.

So day 3 is a Tuesday. Therefore, the day on which Ravi tells the truth is Tuesday.

 

An explorer wishes to cross a barren desert

An explorer wishes to cross a barren desert that requires 6 days to cross, but one man can only carry enough food for 4 days. What is the fewest number of other men required to help carry enough food for him to cross?

Solution

The answer is clearly that only two other men are required. The first helper only goes one day into the desert. He feeds the other two men during the first day, so that at the beginning of the second day, he only has one day rations left. So he goes back to camp. On the second day, the second helper feeds himself and the explorer. On the beginning of the third day the helper now has two days rations left so he heads back. The explorer is two days into the journey and still has all four days of his food left, so he continues on alone.

Pound of cotton or a Pound of gold

Which would you say is heavier, a pound of cotton or a pound of gold?

Solution

A pound of cotton is heavier than a pound of gold because cotton is weighted by the avoirdupois pound, which consists of 16 ounces, whereas gold, being a precious metal is weighted by the troy pound which consists 12 ounces.

(Generally we can say, one ounce of gold is heavier than one ounce of cotton and one pound of gold is lighter than one pound of cotton. )

Tweeting a lot to gain popularity is inefficient

The imbalanced structure of Twitter, where some users have many followers and the large majority barely has several dozen followers, means that messages from the more influential have much more impact. Less popular users can compensate for this by increasing their activity and their tweets, but the outcome is costly and inefficient. This was confirmed by an analysis of the social network performed by researchers from the Technical University of Madrid.

Visualisation of the spreading of messages on Twitter (retweets network in green) on the followers network (grey). The nodes represent users and their size is proportional to the number of followers that they have. Red indicates users who have written original tweets and yellow indicates users who have retweeted them.
Visualisation of the spreading of messages on Twitter (retweets network in green) on the followers network (grey). The nodes represent users and their size is proportional to the number of followers that they have. Red indicates users who have written original tweets and yellow indicates users who have retweeted them.

Credit: Image adapted by A.J. Morales, R.M. Benito et al. – Social Networks

What can Twitter users do to increase their influence? To answer this question, a team of researchers at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) has analysed thousands of conversations, applied a computational model and devised a measure that relates the effort spent to the influence gained by tweeters.

The results, published in the journal ‘Social Networks’, confirm that the actual structure of Twitter is the key to the influence. It is a heterogeneous network, or rather, one where there is a large number of users with very few followers (61 on median, according to O’Reilly), and a few -very few- with an enormous number of followers (up to 40-50 million).

With this type of distribution, network position or ‘topocracy’ comes before meritocracy: “Having a larger number of followers is much more important than the user’s ‘effort’ or activity in sending lots of messages,” Rosa M. Benito, head of the research team, tells SINC.

“However, if the underlying network were homogeneous (something which it is not), users would have approximately the same number of connections and their position on the network would not be important; their influence would depend directly on their activity,” establishes the researcher.

According to the study, on heterogeneous networks like Twitter the way in which users send messages does not matter, because there is always going to be a highly influential minority. Tweets that more popular people or institutions send are spread more and have greater impact, even though they send very few, which is also quite usual.

“The data shows that the emergence of a group of users who write fewer tweets but that are largely retweeted is due to the social network being heterogeneous,” Rosa M. Benito points out.

The researcher is not exactly encouraging for the majority of tweeters who wish to be more influential: “Ordinary users can gain the same number of retweets as popular users by increasing their activity abruptly. Then it is possible to increase their influence through activity, but it is costly and inefficient”.

Courtesy: AlphaGalileo

Scientists invent tool to improve usability of mobile devices

The rapid increase in mobile technology such as smart phones and watches, tablets and Google Glass, has resulted in the need for more research to ensure those devices work well.

But, says Wichita State assistant professor Jibo He, there are no good tools to properly test mobile devices. So He, along with WSU professor Barb Chaparro, invented a solution using the latest technology of Google Glass.

It’s called uSee Glass and is a software application that allows remote observers to conduct usability testing. This week, He and Chaparro filed for a patent on the software.

These are the ways it works:

Participant point of view: The user can wear Google Glass, which includes the uSee Glass software and a video camera. The uSee Glass will capture scenes from the participant’s point of view and stream it for remote observation.

Researcher point of view: The researcher can have the uSee Glass application installed in his or her Google Glass and capture scenes from the researcher’s point of view. The researcher can also have uSee Glass installed in an Android tablet or a smart watch and use the application to communicate with remote observers. Wearing Google Glass or a smart watch allows the researcher to receive a tactile notification when a new message from remote observers arrives. They can also tap on the touchpad of Google Glass to mark important events.

Remote observation: A researcher can observe the scene remotely from anywhere using a computer with an Internet browser. The remote observer can communicate with the researcher via an Android device.

“Currently there’s no good way to do mobile research,” He said. “You can use a web cam, but that’s not from the point of view of the user. USee Glass for Google Glass and smart watches provides a new tool for mobile research. ”

Widespread possibilities

Part of what stands out about this tool is that it allows the researcher the ability to text and communicate with the user while he/she is looking at and interacting with a device. It makes for more efficient research, Chaparro says.

uSee Glass will also help further research that He is conducting on Google Glass. He is one of only a few people in Wichita to have early access to Google Glass and is researching the safety of people using the device while they drive.

While He and Chaparro are focusing their research on Google Glass and other mobile devices, there are potential ramifications for all kinds of industries, such as science, health care, aviation and agriculture.

“The possibilities apply to really any domain,” Chaparro said.

Courtesy: NewsWise

Oceans arrived early to Earth via Meteorites

Earth is known as the Blue Planet because of its oceans, which cover more than 70 percent of the planet’s surface and are home to the world’s greatest diversity of life. While water is essential for life on the planet, the answers to two key questions have eluded us: where did Earth’s water come from and when?

In this illustration of the early solar system, the dashed white line represents the snow line -- the transition from the hotter inner solar system, where water ice is not stable (brown) to the outer Solar system, where water ice is stable (blue). Two possible ways that the inner solar system received water are: water molecules sticking to dust grains inside the "snow line" (as shown in the inset) and carbonaceous chondrite material flung into the inner solar system by the effect of gravity from protoJupiter. With either scenario, water must accrete to the inner planets within the first ca. 10 million years of solar system formation.
In this illustration of the early solar system, the dashed white line represents the snow line — the transition from the hotter inner solar system, where water ice is not stable (brown) to the outer Solar system, where water ice is stable (blue). Two possible ways that the inner solar system received water are: water molecules sticking to dust grains inside the “snow line” (as shown in the inset) and carbonaceous chondrite material flung into the inner solar system by the effect of gravity from protoJupiter. With either scenario, water must accrete to the inner planets within the first ca. 10 million years of solar system formation.

Credit: Illustration by Jack Cook, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

While some hypothesize that water came late to Earth, well after the planet had formed, findings from a new study led by scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) significantly move back the clock for the first evidence of water on Earth and in the inner solar system.

“The answer to one of the basic questions is that our oceans were always here. We didn’t get them from a late process, as was previously thought,” said Adam Sarafian, the lead author of the paper published Oct. 31, 2014, in the journal Science and a MIT/WHOI Joint Program student in the Geology and Geophysics Department.

One school of thought was that planets originally formed dry, due to the high-energy, high-impact process of planet formation, and that the water came later from sources such as comets or “wet” asteroids, which are largely composed of ices and gases.

“With giant asteroids and meteors colliding, there’s a lot of destruction,” said Horst Marschall, a geologist at WHOI and coauthor of the paper. “Some people have argued that any water molecules that were present as the planets were forming would have evaporated or been blown off into space, and that surface water as it exists on our planet today, must have come much, much later — hundreds of millions of years later.”

The study’s authors turned to another potential source of Earth’s water — carbonaceous chondrites. The most primitive known meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites, were formed in the same swirl of dust, grit, ice and gasses that gave rise to the sun some 4.6 billion years ago, well before the planets were formed.

“These primitive meteorites resemble the bulk solar system composition,” said WHOI geologist and coauthor Sune Nielsen. “They have quite a lot of water in them, and have been thought of before as candidates for the origin of Earth’s water.”

In order to determine the source of water in planetary bodies, scientists measure the ratio between the two stable isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and hydrogen. Different regions of the solar system are characterized by highly variable ratios of these isotopes. The study’s authors knew the ratio for carbonaceous chondrites and reasoned that if they could compare that to an object that was known to crystallize while Earth was actively accreting then they could gauge when water appeared on Earth.

To test this hypothesis, the research team, which also includes Francis McCubbin from the Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico and Brian Monteleone of WHOI, utilized meteorite samples provided by NASA from the asteroid 4-Vesta. The asteroid 4-Vesta, which formed in the same region of the solar system as Earth, has a surface of basaltic rock — frozen lava. These basaltic meteorites from 4-Vesta are known as eucrites and carry a unique signature of one of the oldest hydrogen reservoirs in the solar system. Their age — approximately 14 million years after the solar system formed — makes them ideal for determining the source of water in the inner solar system at a time when Earth was in its main building phase. The researchers analyzed five different samples at the Northeast National Ion Microprobe Facility — a state-of-the-art national facility housed at WHOI that utilizes secondary ion mass spectrometers. This is the first time hydrogen isotopes have been measured in eucrite meteorites.

The measurements show that 4-Vesta contains the same hydrogen isotopic composition as carbonaceous chondrites, which is also that of Earth. That, combined with nitrogen isotope data, points to carbonaceous chondrites as the most likely common source of water.

“The study shows that Earth’s water most likely accreted at the same time as the rock. The planet formed as a wet planet with water on the surface,” Marschall said.

While the findings don’t preclude a late addition of water on Earth, it shows that it wasn’t necessary since the right amount and composition of water was present at a very early stage.

“An implication of that is that life on our planet could have started to begin very early,” added Nielsen. “Knowing that water came early to the inner solar system also means that the other inner planets could have been wet early and evolved life before they became the harsh environments they are today.”

courtesy: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Your new year investment resolutions!

New Year brings with it new beginnings and optimism. A lot of people like to usher in the New Year with resolutions that they eventually end up breaking. Many of these New Year resolutions revolve around personal finance since financial well being is an important aspect of life. A lot of people usually fail to maintain such New Year financial resolutions because they over complicate their resolutions making them hard to maintain.

investment_resolutions

Before making your resolutions for 2014, the most important thing you should do is to review your current financial status. Here is a quick check for making a simple and achievable New Year resolution for anyone irrespective of earnings and expenditure. Apart from improving the overall financial health, this can help you take smarter financial decisions in the long term.

Review your investment portfolio: Reviewing one’s investment portfolio by the end of the year is one of the best steps for taking a good investment related resolution. While reviewing the overall investment portfolio, one must ask some basic questions as to how risky the investment portfolio is and explore the adjustments where required. If you are single and have started working only recently, you can afford a riskier portfolio compared to married people with families. One thing that is common while evaluating your personal investment portfolio for the year is to always maintain a balance between long term goals and any emergency requirements for a rainy day.

Pay off Debt: Paying off old debt is one of the best ways to usher in the New Year. Budgeting and paying off old debt might not be as difficult as it may appear and only require a principled approach. One can set up accounts to automatically deduct monthly expenses. Get out of the old debt trap to increase the chances of improving your financial health in the coming year.

The best approach is to start by paying off the debt with higher interest rates like credit card des and personal loans. If you have some surplus cash, you may also consider paying off loans as pre payment instead of paying EMIs. The best way to resolve pension debts is to keep a lookout for better interest options in the market to reduce the total term of the home loan thereby saving on the interest cost.  You can use the additional pay outs you received this year like bonus, incentives, LTA etc for paying off unwanted debts.

Invest in an Emergency Fund: In this day and age of increasing inflation, sudden job loss or a sudden illness of any family members can damage your finances. Therefore, it is imperative to consider investing in an emergency fund. Most financial experts are of the view that such emergency funds which also known as contingency fund, must hold finances that can sustain the dependent members of the family for a minimum period of six months. If you have not given due though to have an active emergency fund, make plans to start it this New Year. Make regular investments in your emergency fund which can gradually help you a build a corpus that is liquid with the ability to earn handsome returns.

Protect your family’s Financial Future: Protecting your family’s financial future is an essential step that needs to be a part of each financial resolution. A lot of people explore life insurance but totally ignore medical insurance for dependants and immediate family members. If you are one of those who have neglected medical insurance of your dependants, plan for a good package by this New Year.

For people seeking life insurance as an investment, one needs to understand that life insurance helps your dependants in case you are not around. Considering insurance purely as an investment vehicle is a bad financial decision that must be changed.

Improve Credit Scores: Another great New Year resolution is to improve your overall credit score (CIBIL). Many people are stuck with bad credit score due to their own financial mismanagement. Take a call before this New Year to cut out on unwanted credit cards and loans so that you do not end up spoiling your credit score in the coming year. If you are planning to avail some loans in the coming months, make sure that you keep a minimum gap of six months between the two loan applications. Pay your loans and credit cards on time avoiding late payments.

courtesy : Bank Bazar